ALD is a vapor phase technique capable of producing thin films of a variety of materials. As device requirements push toward smaller and more spatially demanding structures, ALD has demonstrated potential advantages over alternative deposition methods.
ALD offers exceptional conformity on high-aspect ratio structures, thickness control at the angstrom level, and tunable film composition from metal oxides to noble metals. ALD has emerged as a powerful tool for many industrial and research applications including ferroelectric memories, switches, radiation detectors, thin-film capacitors and MEMS). They also are affording significant improvements in solar cell devices, high-k transistors, solid oxide fuels, protective coatings, fuel cells, lithium ion- batteries and nanogratings. Reviews of the ALD process and its many applications are currently available from the literature.1-5